Del Análisis del Movimiento Internacional de Capitales a una Teoría de la Empresa Multinacional From the Analysis of the International Movement of Capital to a Theory of the Multinational Enterprise

Juan Velez-Ocampo

Resumen


Tradicionalmente el estudio de los negocios internacionales se ha ocupado de analizar el conjunto de actividades y transacciones internacionales en las que se involucran las empresas. La clasificación como empresas internacionales o empresas multinacionales (EMN) se realiza dependiendo del control y el compromiso ejercido sobre sus operaciones en el exterior. El estudio de la existencia, el desarrollo y los límites de la EMN como fenómeno económico inició a mediados del siglo XX con los aportes de Stephen Hymer, considerado el padre de los negocios internacionales, y de autores como Ronald Coase, Oliver Williamson, Raymon Vernon, Frederick Knickerbocker, Marc Casson, Peter Buckley y John Dunning, entre otros. Este artículo busca hacer un recuento de algunos de los enfoques teóricos del análisis del movimiento internacional de capitales y el surgimiento y evolución de la EMN; para esto, inicialmente se hizo una revisión de los aportes de autores como Rosa Luxemburg, Bertil Ohlin y Ragnar Nurkse, posteriormente se discutió la trascendental contribución de Stephen Hymer, el modelo institucionalista de costos de transacción desarrollado por Ronald Coase y Oliver Williamson, la teoría de la internalización de la EMN de Peter Buckley y Marc Casson, y finalmente el llamado paradigma ecléctico de John Dunning. 

Abstract

International business studies have traditionally been concerned of the set of international activities and transactions in which companies engage. The classification as international or multinational enterprise (MNE) is based on the control and commitment abroad. The study of the existence, development and limits of the MNE as an economic phenomenon began in the mid-twentieth century with the contributions of Stephen Hymer, considered the father of international business, and authors such as Ronald Coase, Oliver Williamson, Raymond Vernon, Frederick Knickerbocker, Marc Casson, Peter Buckley and John Dunning, among others. This paper is intended to summarize some of the theoretical approaches to the analysis of international capital flows and the emergence and evolution of the MNEs. To do this, a review of the contributions of authors such as Rosa Luxemburg, Bertil Ohlin and Ragnar Nurkse was initially made, then the transcendental contribution of Stephen Hymer and the institutionalism-transaction cost theory developed by Ronald Coase and Oliver Williamson were discussed and finally the theory of the internalization of the MNE by Peter Buckey and Marc Casson and Dunning’s eclectic paradigm were introduced.


Palabras clave


Costos de transacción, empresa multinacional, internalización, inversión extranjera directa.

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15433/ruta.v18i1.865

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