Ingroups and Outgroups in Complaints: Exploring Politic Behaviour in Nurses’ Discourse

Mariana Virginia Lazzaro-Salazar

Resumen


The relevance of social norms for understanding appropriate behaviour in context has taken central stage in (im)politeness research in recent years, and particularly in studies of workplace interaction (Holmes, 2012). As an example of this research, this paper explores the way in which a group of nurses interacting with their colleagues negotiates complaints. The data were collected in a ward of a public healthcare institution in New Zealand and consist of audio and video recordings of four roster meetings involving nurses and nurse managers. Instances of nurses’ complaints are explored from an interactional sociolinguistic point of view, allowing the researcher to investigate emergent facework (drawing on Locher and Watts, 2005). The findings suggest that multiple ingroup and outgroup memberships, achieved through the dynamic use of personal pronouns, enact preferred politic behaviour for both, transactional and relational goals. In addition, nurses’ convergence in their display of socio-pragmatic norms governing their complaining practices suggests that this group of nurses belongs to the same workplace community. Finally, strong emphasis is placed on the role that complaining plays in the positive presentation of nurses’ identities.

Texto completo:

PDF HTML

Referencias


Abrams, D. & Hogg, M. (2001). Collective identity: Group membership and self conception. In M. Hogg & S. Tindale (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Group processes (pp. 425-460). Oxford: Blackwell.

Allsop, J. & Mulcahy, L. (1998). Maintaining professional identity: doctors’ responses to complaints. Sociology of Health & Illness 20(6), 802-824. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9566.00130

Apker, J. & Eggly, S. (2004). Communicating professional identity in medical socialization: Considering the ideological discourse of morning report. Qualitative Health Research 14(3), 411-429. DOI: 10.1177/1049732303260577

Asmuss, B., & Svennevig, J. (2009). Meeting Talk An Introduction. Journal of Business Communication 46(1), 3-22. DOI: 10.1177/0021943608326761

Backhaus. (2009). Politeness in institutional elderly care in Japan: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Politeness Research. Language, Behaviour, Culture 5(1), 53-71. DOI: 10.1515/JPLR.2009.004

Barbour, J. B., Gill, R., & Dean, M. (2016). Work space, gendered occupations, and the organization of health: Redesigning emergency department communication. In T. Harrison & E. Williams (Eds.), Organizations, communication, and health (pp. 101-118). New York, NY: Routledge.

Bardovi-Harlig, K. & Hartford, B. (eds.) (2005). Interlanguage pragmatics: Exploring institutional talk. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Bargiela-Chiappini, F. & Nickerson, C. (2002). Business discourse: Old debates, new horizons. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 40(4), 273-286. DOI: 10.1515/iral.2002.013

Barone, S. (2012). Seeking narrative coherence: Doctors’ elicitations and patients’ narratives in medical encounters. PhD Thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.

Blommaert, J. (2005). Discourse: A critical introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Boxer, D. (1995). The ethnographic interview as a tool for speech act research: The case of complaints. http://cpd1.ufmt.br/meel/arquivos/artigos/184.pdf (consulted in November 2016).

Boxer, D. (2002). Applying sociolinguistics: Domains and face-to-face interaction (Vol.15). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Brown, B. & Crawford, P. (2009). Politeness strategies in question formulation in a UK telephone advisory service. Journal of Politeness Research. Language, Behaviour, Culture 5(1), 73-91. DOI: 10.1515/JPLR.2009.005

Brown, P. & Levinson, S. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage (Vol. 4). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Buchan, J., Seccombe, I., & Charlesworth, A. (2016). Staffing matters; funding counts Workforce profile and trends in the English NHS. Available in: file:///E:/Publications/WORKING/In-groups%20and%20out-groups/StaffingMattersFundingCounts.pdf (consulted in November 2016)

Bucholtz, M. & Hall, K. (2005). Identity and interaction: A sociocultural linguistic approach. Discourse Studies 7(4-5), 585-614. DOI: 10.1177/1461445605054407

Coupland, J. (Ed.). (2000). Small talk. Harlow: Longman.

Cupach, W. & Carson, C. (2002). Characteristics and consequences of interpersonal complaints associated with perceived face threat. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 19(4), 443-462. DOI: 10.1177/0265407502019004047

Drew, P. & Walker, T. (2009). Going too far: Complaining, escalating and disaffiliation. Journal of Pragmatics 41(12), 2400-2414. DOI:10.1016/j.pragma.2008.09.046

Edwards, D. (2005). Moaning, whinging and laughing: The subjective side of complaints. Discourse Studies 7(1), 5-29. DOI: 10.1177/1461445605048765

Enyedy, N. & Goldberg, J. (2004). Inquiry in interaction: How local adaptations of curricula shape classroom communities. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 41(9), 905-935. DOI: 10.1002/tea.20031

Erickson, F. (1986). Qualitative methods on research on teaching. In M. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (pp. 119–161). New York: Macmillan.

Fairclough, N. & Wodak, R. (1997). Critical discourse analysis. In T. van Dijk (Ed.), Introduction to Discourse Analysis (pp. 258–284). London: Sage Publications.

Fasulo, A. & Zucchermaglio, C. (2002). My selves and I: Identity markers in work meeting talk. Journal of Pragmatics 34(9), 1119-1144. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-2166(01)00051-0

Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Graham, S. (2009). Hospitalk: Politeness and hierarchical structures in interdisciplinary discharge rounds. Journal of Politeness Research. Language, Behaviour, Culture 5(1), 11-31. DOI: 10.1515/JPLR.2009.002

Grice, T., Gallois, C., Jones, E., Paulsen, N. & Callan, V. (2006). We Do It, but They Don’t: Multiple Categorizations and Work Team Communication. Journal of Applied Communication Research 34(4), 331-348. DOI: 10.1080/00909880600908591

Gumperz, J. (1982). Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hogg, M. & Terry, D. (2000). Social Identity and Self-Categorization Processes in Organizational Contexts. Academy of Management Review 25(1), 121-140. DOI:10.5465/AMR.2000.2791606

Holmes, J. (2012). Politeness in Intercultural Discourse and Communication. In C. Bratt Paulston, S. Kiesling & E. Rangel (Eds.), The Handbook of Intercultural Discourse and Communication (pp. 205-228). UK: Wiley Blackwell.

Holmes, J. & Riddiford, N. (2010). Professional and personal identity at work: achieving a synthesis through intercultural workplace talk. Journal of Intercultural Communication (22).

Holmes, J., Schnurr, S. & Marra, M. (2007). Leadership and communication: discursive evidence of a workplace culture change. Discourse & Communication 1(4), 433-451. DOI: 10.1177/1750481307082207

Koester, A. (2004). Relational sequences in workplace genres. Journal of Pragmatics 36(8), 1405-1428. DOI: 10.1016/j.pragma.2004.01.003

Larson, G. & Pepper, G. (2003). Strategies For Managing Multiple Organizational Identifications A Case of Competing Identities. Management Communication Quarterly 16(4), 528-557. DOI: 10.1177/0893318903251626

Lazzaro-Salazar, M. (2013). Investigating nurses’ professional identity construction in two health settings in New Zealand. PhD Thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.

Lazzaro-Salazar, M., Holmes, J., Marra, M. & Vine, B. (2015). Doing power and negotiating through disagreement in public meetings. Journal of Pragmatics and Society 6(3), 444-464. DOI: 10.1075/ps.6.3.06laz

Lazzaro-Salazar, M. (2016). Downscaling culture in intercultural communication: The case of nurses’ professional values in New Zealand. En D. Cserző, A. Kantara & J. Singh (Eds.), The journey is its own reward: Downscaling culture in Intercultural Communication Research (pp. 114-140). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

LeCompte, M. & Goetz, J. (1982). Problems of reliability and validity in ethnographic research. Review of Educational Research 52(1), 31-60. DOI: 10.3102/00346543052001031

Locher, M. & Watts, R. (2005). Politeness theory and relational work. Journal of Politeness Research 1(1), 9-33. DOI: 10.1515/jplr.2005.1.1.9

Matsuoka, R., & Poole, G. (2015). Politeness Strategies in Healthcare Communication at” Difficult Times”: A Pragmatic Analysis of the” Manga” Discourse in” Nurse Aoi”. Journal of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics 19(2), 89-109.

McKenna, S. (2004). The intersection between academic literacies and student identities. South African Journal of Higher Education 18(3), 269-280.

Meinl, M. (2010). Electronic Complaints: An Empirical Study on British English and German Complaints on eBay. PhD Thesis, Universitäts-und Landesbibliothek Bonn.

Pennycook, A. (2010). Language as a local practice. London: Routledge.

Psathas, G. (1999). Studying the organization in action: Membership categorization and interaction analysis. Human Studies 22(2), 139-162. DOI: 10.1023/A:1005422932589

Ray, C. D., & Veluscek, A. M. (2016). Face threats and additional reasons for perceiving support as unwanted: A study of recently diagnosed cancer patients. Health Communication, 1-7. DOI: 10.1080/10410236.2016.1228027

Roberts, C. & Sarangi, S. (2005). Theme‐oriented discourse analysis of medical encounters. Medical Education 39(6), 632-640. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02171.x

Sarangi, S. & Roberts, C. (Eds.) (1999). Talk, work and institutional order: Discourse in medical, mediation and management settings (Vol. 1). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.

Schnurr, S., Marra, M. & Holmes, J. (2007). Being (im)polite in New Zealand workplaces: Māori and Pākehā leaders. Journal of Pragmatics 39(4), 712-729. DOI: 10.1016/j.pragma.2006.11.016

Schrauf, R. W., & Müller, N. (2014). Dialogue and dementia: cognitive and communicative resources for engagement. In R. Schrauf & N. Müller (Eds.), Dialogue and Dementia (pp. 121-146). New York: Psychology Press.

Spencer-Oatey, H. (Ed.) (2000). Culturally Speaking. Managing Rapport through Talk across Cultures. London: Continuum.

Spencer-Oatey, H. (2005). (Im)politeness, face, and perceptions of rapport: Unpackaging their bases and interrelationships. Journal of Politeness Research 1(1), 95-119. DOI: 10.1515/jplr.2005.1.1.95

Tajfel, H. (1974). Social identity and intergroup behaviour. Social Science Information 13(2), 65-93. DOI: 10.1177/053901847401300204

Tannen, D. & Wallat, C. (1986). Medical professionals and parents: A linguistic analysis of communication across contexts. Language in Society 15(03), 295-311. DOI: 10.1017/S0047404500011787

Trosborg, A. (1995). Interlanguage pragmatics: Requests, complaints, and apologies (Vol. 7). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.

Trudgill, P. (2003). A glossary of sociolinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Turner, J. (1975). Social comparison and social identity: Some prospects for intergroup behaviour. European Journal of Social Psychology 5, 5-34. DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2420050102

van Dijk, T. (2006). Discourse, context and cognition. Discourse Studies 8(1), 159-177. DOI: 10.1177/1461445606059565

Vine, B., Holmes, J., Marra, M., Pfeifer, D. & Jackson, B. (2008). Exploring co-leadership talk through interactional sociolinguistics. Leadership 4(3), 339-360. DOI: 10.1177/1742715008092389

Watts, R. (1989). Relevance and relational work: linguistic politeness as politic behavior. Multilingua 8(2), 3-131. DOI: 10.1515/mult.1989.8.2-3.131

Watts, R. (2003). Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Zayts, O. & Kang, A. (2009). “So, what test do you prefer?” Negotiating politic behaviour in an L2 prenatal genetic counselling setting in Hong Kong. Journal of Politeness Research. Language, Behaviour, Culture 5(1), 33-51. DOI: 10.1515/JPLR.2009.003

Zurn, P. & Dumont, J. (2008). Health Workforce and International Migration: Can New Zealand Compete? World Health Organization: OECD Health Working Papers, 33.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15443/RL2725

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.




Universidad de la Serena. Departamento de Artes y Letras. Facultad de Humanidades. Avenida Raúl Bitrán 1305. Campus Andrés Bello. Colina el Pino. La Serena. CHILE.